The Enchiridion

Biographical Notes ( St. - Shaw )

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St Ephraim the Syrian (Ephraim Syrus)
b. Nisibis, Northern Mesopotamia: c.307
d. Edessa: 9 June 373

 

Xref:
RS-461 Strengthen for service, Lord, the hands

 

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Sandys, William
b. London: 29 October 1792
d. London: 1874 (buried 18 or 23 February)

 

Xref:
RS-538 Sandys
 

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Schalk, Carl Flentge
b. Des Plaines, Illinois, USA: 26 September 1929

One of the foremost contemporary Lutheran musicians, he was educated at Concordia Teachers College, River Forest, Illinios; the Eastman School of Music, Rochester, NY; and Concordia Theological Seminary, St Louis, Missouri.

He was Director of Music at Zion Lutheran Church, Wausau, Wisconsin 1952-58, and of the International Lutheran House, St Louis 1958-65. He has been professor of church music at Concordia Teachers College since 1965.

He has edited the periodical Church Music since 1966, and has served on the editorial advisory committee of Concordia Publishing House and the hymn music committee of the Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship 1967-78. He has composed many hymn tunes and carols.

Xref:
RS-343 Fortunatus New
 

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Scheffler, Johann (Angelus Silesius)
b. Breslau: 1624
d. Breslau: 9 July 1677

 

(See also Julian pp.1004b-1007) 

Xref:
RS-644=653 Angelus

 

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Schein, Johann Herman
b. Grühein, bei Annaberg, Saxony: 20 January 1586
d. Leipzig: 19 November 1630

After the death of his father, a Lutheran pastor, the family moved to Dresden where, from 1599 to 1603, young Johann was a chorister in the court chapel. He studied law, theology and philosophy at Leipzig University from 1608-12; after two years as a private tutor he became Kapellmeister to the Duke of Saxe-Weimar 1615-16, and then returned to Leipzig as Cantor at St Thomas's Church and School 1616-30 (a post to be held by J.S.Bach a century later).

Although he wrote hymn texts and some instrumental music, it was as a composer of vocal music that he achieved distinction; one of the first Lutheran composers to use Italian techniques, he wrote many sacred and secular works. Best known is his Lutheran hymnal Cantional (1627), containing 80 tunes of his own; he also compiled Cantiones Sacrae (choral settings for 5 to 12 voices) and Musicae Divina (motets for 8, 16 and 24 voices).

(See also GDM; Julian pp.1007b-1008a)

Xref:
RS-100=259=519 Eisenach

 

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Schemelli, Georg Christian
b. ? : c.1676
d. ? : c.1762

(See also OCM)

Xref:
RS-550 Ich halte treulich still
also
Georg Schemelli: Gesangbuch
 

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Schicht, Johann Gottfried
b. Reichenau, bei Zittau, Saxony: 29 September 1753
d. Leipzig: 16 February 1823

He studied law at Leipzig University, but soon turned to music and was engaged by J.A.Hiller as a harpsichordist for the concerts that developed into the famous Gewandhaus Concerts; he succeeded Hiller as director in 1785. He was also organist and cantor at various churches in Leipzig. He resigned all other appointments to become organist and Cantor at St Thomas's Church and School (posts previously held by Bach), 1810-23). 

He composed church and chamber music, edited a collection of Bach's motets, and translated text-books by Pleyel and Clementi. His Allgemeines Gesangbuch 1819 has about 1200 chorales, of which nearly 300 are his own compositions and show him as a master of the older, dignified style.

(See also GDM)

Xrefs:
RS-68 Manna
RS-338 Zu meinem Herrn
 

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Schlegel, Johann Adolf
b. Meissen, Saxony: 17 September 1721
d. Hannover, 16 September 1793

[ Biographical note mainly by James Mearns, in Julian pp.1009-1010 (slightly shortened and adapted) ]

His father, Dr Johann Friedrich Schlegel, was a senior government official in Meissen, where Johann Adolf was born. After passing through the famous school at Pforta, near Naumburg, he studied at the University of Leipzig from 1741-46, where he became acquainted with Johann Cramer, Christian Gellert and Friedrich Klopstock, and contributed to the Neue Beyträge zum Vergnügen des Verstandes und Witzes [Note *].

In 1746 he became a private tutor at Strehla in Saxony, and then returned to Leipzig where he occupied himself in literary work until 1748, when he went to live with his friend Cramer at Crellwitz, near Lützen.

He remained at Crellwitz until 1751, when he was appointed a master in his old school at Pforta, and also diaconus of the church there. In 1754 he became chief pastor of the Holy trinity church at Zerbst, and also Professor of Theology and Metaphysics in the Academic Gymnasium in that town. In 1759 he moved to Hannover as pastor of the Markt Kirche, and in 1775 he was moved to the Neustadt Church there, as chief pastor and also as Consistorialrath and Superintendent.

While retaining his pastorate at Hannover, he was also appointed in 1782 as General Superintendent of the District of Hoya; but in 1787 he exchanged this for the General Superintendency of the Principality of Kalenberg. In the same year (1787) he received the degree of D.D. at the Jubilee Festival of the University of Göttingen. He died of a fever in Hannover, six years later.

He was a most prolific writer, and one of the most celebrated preachers of his time. His hymns suited the taste of the Rationalistic period, and were exceedingly popular at the end of the 18th century but have since, in great measure, passed out of use. Many of them were merely polished and weakened versions of, or were founded upon, earlier hymns; the example of his hymnody included in RS may be said to fall into the latter category.

Without making any judgement as to their respective qualities, it could be argued that Schlegel's approach to the texts of older hymn writers was not unlike that consciously adopted by the editors of Hymns for Today's Church.

Xref:
RS-182 How brightly beams the morning star
(see also)
RS-561 Vienna
also
J.Schlegel: Geistliche Gesänge
 

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Schmidlin, Johann
b. Zürich, Switzerland: 22 May 1722
d. Wetzikon-Seegräben, bei Zürich: 5 November 1722

He studied theology and music at the Collegium Carolinum, Zürich. He served the Swiss Reformed Church as curate at Dietlikon, 1744-54; and as minister at Wetzikon-Seegräben, 1754-72. In 1755 he founded a choral society to promote congregational singing, and in 1769 a music school. He compiled several collections of sacred and secular songs, cantatas and odes.

 

(See also GDM) 

Xref:
RS-734 Lucerne / Dresden
 

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Schmolck, Benjamin (or Schmolk)
b. Brauchitzchdorf, bei Liegnitz, Silesia: 21 December 1672
d. Schweidnitz, Silesia: 12 February 1737

[ Biographical note by James Mearns, in Julian pp.962-3 (slightly shortened and adapted) ]

His father Martin Schmolke (or Schmolcke) was Lutheran pastor at Brauchitzchdorf. Benjamin entered the Gymnasium at Lauban in 1672 and spent five years there. After his return home he preached a sermon for his father which so struck the patron of the living that he made Benjamin an allowance for three years to enable him to study theology.

At Michaelmas 1693 he matriculated at the University of Leipzig, where he came under the influence of Johann Olearius, J.B.Carpzov and others, and throughout his life retained the character of their teaching, viz. a warm and living practical Christianity, but churchly in tone and not Pietistic.

In the autumn of 1697, after completing his studies at Leipzig (during which he supported himself mainly by writing occasional poems for wealthy citizens, for which he was also crowned as a poet), he returned to Brauschitzchdorf to help his father, and in 1701 was ordained as his assistant. On February 12, 1702, he married Anna Rosina Rehwald, daughter of a merchant in Lauban (and subsequently wrote a hymn in the form of an acrostic on the letters of her name). At the end of that year he was appointed diaconus of the Friedenskirche at Schweidnitz, Silesia.

As a result of the Counter-Reformation in Silesia, the churches in the Principality of Schweidnitz had been taken from the Lutherans; and for the whole district the `Peace of Westphalia' permitted only one Lutheran church (and that only of timber and clay, without bells), which the Lutherans had to build at Schweidnitz outside the walls of the town. The three clergy attached to this church had to minister to a population scattered over some 36 villages, and were moreover hampered by many restrictions: e.g. being unable to communicate a sick person without a permit from the local Roman Catholic priest.

Here Schmolk remained until the close of his life, becoming archi-diaconus in 1708, senior in 1712, and pastor primarius and inspector in 1714. Probably as a result of his exhausting labours he had a paralytic stroke on Laetare Sunday (mid-Lent) 1730, which for a time laid him aside altogether, and after which he never recovered the use of his right hand.

For five more years he was still able to officiate, preaching for the last time on a fast-day in 1735. But two more strokes followed, and then a cataract developed, relieved for a time by a successful operation, but returning again incurably. For the last months of his life he was confined to bed, until the message of release came to him, on the anniversary of his wedding, February 12, 1737.

Schmolck was well known in his own district as a popular and useful preacher, a diligent pastor, and a man of wonderful tact and discretion. It was, however, his devotional books and the original hymns therein contained that brought him into wider popularity, and carried his name and fame all over Germany. (For a list of some of his numerous books, click here > > .

He was the most popular hymn-writer of his time, and was hailed as the `Silesian Rist' [Johann Rist, a prolific hymn-writer and pastor near Hamburg, who died in 1677], as the `second Gerhardt' [Paul Gerhardt], &c. He did not, however, possess the soaring genius of Gerhardt, nor even Gerhardt's concise, simple style; but instead was too fond of high-sounding expressions, of plays upon words, of far-fetched but often recurring contrasts, and in general of straining after effect, especially in the pieces written in his later years. In fact he wrote a great deal too much, and latterly without proper attention to concentration or proportion; besides Cantatas and occasional pieces for wedding, funerals &c., he is the author of some 900 hymns, which are naturally not all alike good.

Nevertheless, a deep and genuine personal religion and a fervent love to the Saviour inspire his best hymns, which undoubtedly come from the heart. The best of them are also written in a clear, flowing, forcible, natural, popular style, and abound in sententious sayings, easily to be remembered. Even of these, many are more suited for family use than for public worship; but they very soon came into extensive use, not only in Silesia, but all over Germany.

Xref:
RS-390 Open now thy gates of beauty
 

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Scholefield, Clement Cotterill
b. Edgbaston, Warwickshire: 22 June 1839
d. Godalming, Surrey: 10 September 1904

He was the seventh son of a Birmingham merchant (who was MP for Birmingham 1847-67), and was educated at Pocklington Grammar School York and St John's College Cambridge. He was admitted to the Inner Temple in 1863. He was ordained in 1867, serving curacies at Hove Parish Church, Sussex 1867-70; St Peter's, South Kensington 1871-79; and St Luke's Chelsea 1879-80. While at St Peter's he began his friendship with Arthur Sullivan, who was organist there from 1867-72. He was Conduct (chaplain) of Eton College 1880-90; vicar of Holy Trinity Knightsbridge 1890-95; and then retired to Godalming.

Though without systematic musical training, he was an accomplished pianist, and composed piano music, songs, and over forty hymn tunes.

Xref:
RS-584 St Clement
 

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Scholey, Arthur
b. Sheffield, Yorkshire: 17 June 1932

 

Xref: 
RS-46 O praise him! O praise him! O praise him!
 

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Schulz, Johann Abraham Peter
b. Lüneburg, Saxony: 31 March 1747
d. Schwedt-an-der-Oder, Brandenburg: 10 June 1800

His father was a baker. Young Johann was intended by his father for the Church, but devotion to music caused him to leave home at 15, penniless, and become a free pupil of the famous teacher Kirnberger in Berlin. In the service of Princess Sapieta of Poland he travelled through Germany, France and Italy between 1768 and 1773, studying and listening to music. Back in Berlin he helped the generous Kirnberger and Sulzer with music articles for their General Theory of the Fine Arts, and edited Kirnberger's Treatise on Pure Composition.

He was music director of the French Theatre Berlin 1776-80; Kapellmeister to Prince Henry of Prussia 1780-87; and Kapellmeister Royal at Copenhagen 1787-95, where he had a considerable influence on Danish music. His health was permanently damaged in trying to save the music library when the Danish Royal Palace was burnt down in 1795; he returned to Berlin the following year a broken man.

He composed operas, songs, and much church and instrumental music, but is best known for his important collections of German songs, secular and sacred.

(See also GDM; OCM, under `Scandinavia 2')

Xref:
RS-124 Wir pflügen
 

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Schütz, Johann Jakob
b. Frankfurt am Main: 7 September 1640
d. Frankfurt: 22 May 1690

 

(See also Julian p.1018) 

Xref:
RS-75 Sing praise to God who reigns above
also
J.Schütz: Gedenkenbüchlein
 

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Schweitzer, Albrecht

b. Kayserberg, Upper Alsace: 14 January 1875

d. Lambaréné, Gabon, French Equatorial Africa: 4 September 1965

 

(See also GDM; OCM) 

Xref:
RS-525 He comes to us as one unknown
 

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Scott, Robert Balgarnie Young
b. Toronto, Canada: 18 July 1899
d. Toronto: 1 November 1987

 

Xref: 
RS-632 O day of God, draw near
 

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Scriven, Joseph Medlicott
b. Seapatrick, Co.Down, Ireland: 10 September 1819
d. Bewdley, Rice Lake, Ontario, Canada: 10 August 1886

 

(See also Julian p.1700a) 

Xref:
RS-413 What a friend we have in Jesus
 

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Sears, Edmund Hamilton
b. Sandisfield, Berkshire County, Mass., USA: 6 April 1810
d. Weston, Mass., USA: 16 January 1876

 

Xref: 
RS-144 It came upon the midnight clear
 

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Seddon, James Edward
b. Ormskirk, Lancashire: 24 August 1915
d. Westminster, London: 19 September 1983

 

Xref:
RS-574 Go forth and tell! O church of God, awake
 

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Sedgwick, Daniel
b. Leadenhall Street, London: 24 November 1814
d. Bishopsgate, London: 10 March 1879

His parents were poor, and after serving an apprenticeship he became a shoemaker. In 1837 he gave up shoemaking and began to deal in second-hand books. Having married in 1839 he joined a Strict Baptist church in London, and became an expert in theological books, especially hymn-books, later publishing reprints of some rare hymn-writers of the 17th and 18th century. He did not learn to write until 1840, but then began to edit and publish hymnological books, including A Comprehensive Index of ... Original Authors and Translators of Psalms and Hymns (1860, 2nd enlarged edn 1863). This brought him wide respect as a hymnologist, and he was consulted by many hymn-book editors, including C.H.Spurgeon, Josiah Miller, Sir Roundell Palmer (Lord Selbourne), and editors of Hymns Ancient and Modern.His mss were used by John Julian in preparing the Dictionary of Hymnology 1892. He was a careful scholar, though not always accurate, and he pioneered a branch of hymnological studies which many have since followed.

[ This account, based on the articles in Julian and DNB, was prepared for Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 4th edition 2003-6 ]

 

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Caelius Sedulius (c.450)
b. ? Rome: ? 400 +
d. ?

(Julian p.1037a)

Information about his life is meagre, the main available source being the paragraph in Julian noted above. We give this in full here:

The known facts concerning this poet, as contained in his two letters to Macedonius, are, that in early life, he devoted himself to heathen literature; that comparatively late in life he was converted to Christianity; and that among his friends were Gallicanus and Perpetua. The place of his birth is generally believed to have been Rome; and the date when he flourished 450. For this date the evidence is, that he referred to the Commentaries of Jerome, who died 420; is praised by Cassiodorus, who died 575, and by Gelasius, who was Pope from 492 to 496.

His works were collected, after his death, by Asterius, who was consul in 494. They are (1) Carmen Psachale, a poem which treats of the whole Gospel story; (2) Opus Paschale, a prose rendering of the former; (3) Elegia, a poem, of 110 lines, on the same subject as the Carmen; (4) Veteris et Novi Testamenti Collatio; and (5) the hymn "A solis ortus cardine". Areval (1794) quotes 16 MSS of Sedulius's work, ranging in date from the 7th to the 16th century. The best edition of his Opera is that by Dr J.Huemer, published at Vienna in 1885. Areval's text is printed in Migne's PP. Lat. vol.xix. This Sedulius must not be confounded with the Irish, or with the Scottish Sedulius, as is sometimes done. [ J.J. ]

Our efforts to identify the "friends" and correspondent of Sedulius have not been fruitful. Perpetus, whose name-day is kept on 7th March in the 1662 Anglican calendar, was martyred in 203; Macedonius, bishop of Constantinople from 342, was deposed (probably for heresy) in 360; any connection of either with Sedulius is unlikely to have been close.

It would appear that Sedulius's only contribution to hymnody was the acrostic poem "A solus ortus cardine", although through a variety of centos and translations this has given rise to a number of English hymns. See further the notes on the two hymns mentioned below.

Xrefs:
RS-172 From east to west, from shore to shore
RS-189 Why, Herod, so unpitying
 

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Selby, Bertram Luard (later, B.Luard-Selby)
b. The Mote, Ightham, Kent: 12 February 1853
d. Winterton, Lincolnshire: 26 December 1918

He was born in the 14th-century manor house owned by the Selby family for about 300 years. Having studied at the Leipzig Conservatoire, he became organist of St Barnabas, Marylebone, London and Director of Music at Highgate School 1876-81. He was then at Salisbury Cathedral 1881-83; St John's Church Torquay 1884-87; St Barnabas, Pimlico, London 1887-1900 (in succession to Basil Harwood) and Rochester Cathedral 1900-16.

His compositions included two operas, incidental music for the theatre, church music, songs, organ and chamber works. He was music editor for A&M 1904 to which he contributed 21 tunes.

He hyphenated his name `Luard-Selby' from about 1905.

(See also GDM, under `Luard-Selby')

Xref:
RS-449 Eccles
 

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Shairp, John Campbell
b. Houstoun, Linlithgowshire: 30 July 1819
d. Ormsary, Argyllshire: 18 September 1885

 

(See also DNB; Julian p.1701b) 

Xref:
RS-513 'Twixt gleams of joy and clouds of doubt
 

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Saville, Evelyn Mary (née Sharpe)
b. Battersea, Surrey: 2 September 1884
d. St Marylebone, Middlesex: 15 August 1969

The daughter of an architect, she was educated privately. She wrote much educational music, solo songs and part-songs and some light orchestral music.

In 1919 she married L.J.Saville.

Xref:
RS-439 Platts Lane
 

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Shave, Eric Charles Leach
b. Cleckheaton, Yorkshire: 6 March 1901
d. Torquay, Devon: 25 April 1996

His father and grandfather were both Congregational ministers, whose calling he also followed. He was educated at Taunton School and Mansfield College Oxford; then ordained a Congregational minister, serving at Eastwood, Nottinghamshire 1927-30; Crosby, Liverpool 1930-39; Streatham, London 1939-53; and Bromley, Kent 1953-66.

He was an accomplished musician, composed many songs, anthems and hymn-tunes, and was a member of the editorial committees for Congregational Praise 1951.

Xref: 
RS-533 Eastwood
 

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Shaw, Geoffrey Turton
b. Clapham, Surrey: 14 November 1879
d. Westminster, London: 14 April 1943

He was a younger brother of Martin Shaw. He was a chorister at St Paul's Cathedral, and then educated at Derby School and at Gonville and Caius College Cambridge. He was organ scholar at Caius, and studied with Stanford and Charles Wood. He was Director of Music at Gresham's School, Holt, Norfolk 1902-10; and held several organist's posts, including St Mary's Primrose Hill from 1920. He was an inspector of music in London schools from 1911-40, and sometime chairman of the BBC schools music sub-committee. 

He did much to raise standards of music education and performance in schools, and was greatly in demand as an adjudicator at music festivals. He shared his brother's enthusiasm for folk-music and for the music of Purcell, and also a concern to restore dignity to church music. He edited several song-books, was one of the editors of The Public School Hymn Book 1919, and published the 2-volume Descant Hymn-Tune Book. He composed songs, choral works, anthems, and many hymn tunes and arrangements.

(See also GDM)

Xref:
RS-169 Puer nobis
 

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Shaw, Martin Edward Fallas
b. Kennington, Surrey: 9 March 1875
d. Southwold, Suffolk: 24 October 1958

He was the elder brother of Geoffrey Shaw. He studied at the Royal College of Music under Stanford, Parry and Walford Davies. In the theatre he conducted for Ellen Terry and toured Europe for Isadora Duncan 1906-8. He was organist of St Mary's Primrose Hill, London 1908-20, where with Percy Dearmer (who was vicar there until 1915) he worked for the improvement of the liturgy.

He was a founder of the Plainsong and Mediaeval Music Society, organist of St Martin-in-the-Fields 1920-24; master of music of the Guildhouse, London 1924-35; and director of church music for the diocese of Chelmsford 1935-45. He was music editor of The English Carol Book 1913-19; and with Vaughan Williams edited the music of Songs of Praise (1925 and 1931) and The Oxford Book of Carols 1928. He published many collections of folk-songs, the style of which greatly influenced his own compositions; these included theatre music, orchestral works, about 100 songs, much church music and many hymn tunes.

(See also GDM)

Xrefs:
RS-25=596 Crediton
RS-45 Bunessan
RS-148 In der Wiegen
RS-168 Zu Bethlehem geboren
RS-245 Christus ist erstanden
 

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(The Rejoice & Sing Enchiridion:edited by David Goodall; last amended 19/5/03)