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Schemelli, G.C.: Gesangbuch
Georg Christian Schemelli: Musikalisches Gesang-Buch, Darinnen 954 geistreiche, sowohl alte als neue Lieder und Arien, mit wohlgesetzten Melodien, in Discant und Bass, befindlich sind; . . . mit einer Vorrede Sr. Hochehrw. Herrn Friedrich Schulzens, . . . herausgegeben von George Christian Schemelli, Schloss-Cantore daselbst, Mit Allergnädigster Freyheit, weder mit, moch ohne Noten nachzudrucken. Leipzig, 1736. Verlegts Bernhard Christoph Breitkopf, Buchdr.
[ tr. below]
Friedrich Schulze's Foreword begins
Die in diesem Musicalischen Gesangbuche befindlichen Melodien, sind von Sr. Hochedl. Herrn Johann Sebastian Bach, Hochfürstl. Sächss. Capellmeister und Directore Chor. Musici in Leipzig, theils ganz neu componieret, theils auch von Ihn im General-Bass verbessert, und beym Anfange eines jeden Liedes gleich eingedrucket worden. Man hätte deren noch mehrere beyfügen können, wenn man nicht bedencken müssen, dass hiedurch manchem das Buch zu theuer werden mögen.
[ tr. below ]
Schemelli, who at the time was "Schloss-Cantor" at Naumberg-Zeitz in Saxony, invited J.S.Bach (then Cantor at St Thomaskirche u. Schule) to prepare a collection of hymns for the press. The Preface to the book (part of which is given above) states that the tunes were either "ganz neu" composed by Bach, or had been supplied by him with a Bass. The 954 hymns share 69 melodies, about a quarter of which have at some time been held to be Bach's own compositions. However, recent research has suggested that only a few of the melodies can be unequivocally identified as his original composition. The preface to a 1987 edition (Breitkopf & Härtel, Wiesbaden), containing the 69 melodies with the first stanza of (one of) the associated hymns in each case, states that only three chorales can be considered authentic Bach compositions: "Dir, dir, Jehovah, will ich singen" (BWV 452), "Komm, süsser Tod" (BWV 478), and "Vergiss mein nicht" (BWV 505).
The original "Discant und Bass" is represented by Soprano and Bass lines of music, with continuo figuring added to the bass line for most of the chorales.
The preface announced that about 200 more melodies were ready for a second edition, should one be called for; but the book was not a success and the further edition did not materialise. (Information from C.S.Terry (NOTE * ) and the 1987 Breitkopf edition referred to above.)
[ NOTE Terry: Bach's Chorales, Part II pp.56-7; Cambridge Univ. Press, 1917 ]
Schemelli Gesangbuch 1736: Title-page
Musical Song-book, wherein 954 Spiritual Songs and Arias, both old and new, are to be found, with well-set melodies, in Soprano and Bass; . . . with a Foreword by the Very Reverend Mr Friedrich Schulze, . . .edited by George Christian Schemelli, Cantor at the Castle there.. With most gracious permission; not to be reprinted either with or without music. Leipzig 1736; published by Bernhard Christoph Breitkopf, Printer.
Schemelli Gesangbuch 1736: start of Friedrich Schulze's Foreword:
The melodies to be found in this Musical Song-book are by the honourable Mr Johann Sebastian Bach, Kapellmeister in the Princedom of Saxony and Director of Choral Music in Leipzig; some of them quite newly composed, and some improved by him in the Figured Bass part; they were printed at the beginning of every song.More could have been included, if it had not been considered that for many people this would have made the book too expensive.
Schlegel: Geistliche Gesänge
(a) Johann Adolf Schlegel: Sammlung Geistliche Gesänge zur Beförderung der Erbauung, Leipzig,1766
Julian's comment: "His hymns suited the taste of the Rationalistic period, and were exceedingly popular in the end of the 18th cent., but have now, in great measure, passed out of use. Many of them were merely polished and weakened versions of, or were founded upon, earlier hymns. . . . "
- RS-182 How brightly beams the morning star
(b) - do - 2nd edn, revised & enlarged, 1769
Other hymn collections:
(c) J.A.Schlegel: Dritte Sammlung, 1772
(d) - do - Vermischte Gedichte: Vol. 1, 1782; Vol. 2, 1789
Schmolck, Benjamin: various hymn-books
Prepared by a Committee appointed by the Council of the Congregational Union of England & Wales at the instance of their Young People's Department. The Committee members are not named in the book; but the Music Advisor was George Thalben-Ball, then Organist of the Temple Church, London.
The book was intended primarily for use in the Sunday Schools of Congregational Churches and in their Young People's organisations. It was divided into two parts; the first part contained 105 hymns "on the whole considered suitable for younger boys and girls"; a further 299 hymns were to serve the needs of older Scholars and Youth organisations. There were 17 alternative tunes in an Appendix.
The book also contained 84 pages of psalms, prayers and other non-musical material; none of these were pointed for chanting, but were intended to be used both for responsive reading in groups and for private devotions.
To view the Preface, and extracts from Congregational Union Assembly Reports and Minutes relating to the production of the book, click here . . .
The first of two `Tractates' on `The Christian Life'. (The second, entitled Christliche Lebensregeln, was published two years later, 1677.) The 1675 issue contained, in a separate section, 5 hymns; all probably, and the last one (`Sei Lob und Ehr dem höchsten Gott') certainly by Schütz himself.
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Hymns for Public Worship selected by the Committee of the General Assembly on Psalmody, 1861
This was authorized by the Church of Scotland after nearly 50 years of discussion, selection and re-selection, to serve as as a supplement to the 1781 Translations and Paraphrases. It contained "89 hymns, 22 doxologies, 3 thanksgivings, 2 dismissions, Hosanna, and 4 sanctuses" (Julian). It was revised in 1864, 22 hymns being omitted and 53 added.
A new Committee appointed in 1866 eventually produced what was substantially a new book, containing 200 hymns; this was published in September 1870 as The Scottish Hymnal, and authorized (permissively) "for the use of such congregations as may wish to avail themselves of it".
A revised edition in 1884 contained a further 158 hymns together with an Appendix of 86 Hymns for Children.
A Tune book was issued in 1862, enlarged in 1865, and issued in 1868 as The Church of Scotland Psalm and Hymn Tune Book; this was further enlarged and revised in 1872, with W.H.Monk as Music Editor.
The Hymnal was issued both as a book with `set tunes' and as a `cut book' - i.e. the pages cut horizontally between tunes and words, so that (in theory) any tune of the right metre could be opened above any set of words. This was continued in editions with the complete Psalms, Paraphrases and Scottish Hymnal in one volume. The practice of so cutting pages was a convenient way of handling the Psalms and Paraphrases when a substantial majority of them were in the same metre (CM) and the number of available tunes was comparatively limited.
(A copy of the 1928 Revised Church Hymnary, bound together with the 1929 revision of the Metrical Psalter and the Translations & Paraphrases, is in the present writer's possession; this still has cut pages for the whole of the first section containing the psalms and paraphrases.)
See also the notes on
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(Julian, pp.1024-25 and 1033-34)
(a) Translations and Paraphrases of several Passages of Sacred Scripture (Draft version) 1745
In 1742 the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland appointed a Committee to "make a collection of Translations into English Verse or Metre, of passages of the Holy Scriptures, or receive in Performances of that kind from any that shall translate them". The Committee made no report for two years, but in 1744 its appointment was renewed and its membership enlarged. By 1745 the above-mentioned Draft was prepared and the Assembly ordered it to be printed for consideration by Presbyteries.
1745 was the year of the "Jacobite rebellion", and doubtless many of those concerned with the Translation project had other preoccupations. At all events, it was four years before the matter was reconsidered by the Assembly, and a further 2 years before an amended version of the Draft was "recommended to be used in private families". It was never authorised for use in Public Worship.
However, a few congregations had begun to make use of [the 1745 Draft], and in 1775 the Synod of Glasgow and Ayr petitioned the Assembly to sanction it for public use. Instead of doing so, the Assembly appointed another Committee to revise and add to it. Once again, five years passed without any response from the Committee, and once again, the Assembly renewed its appointment and enlarged its membership. Finally, on 1st June 1781, the Assembly allowed "this Collection of sacred Poems to be used in public worship in congregations, where the Minister finds it for edification".
The 1745-51 versions contained 45 paraphrases.
[ Scottish Paraphrases, 1745 Draft Version ]
(b) Translations and Paraphrases, in Verse, of several Passages of Sacred Scripture. Collected and prepared by a Committee of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, in order to be sung in Churches. Edinburgh: Printed and sold by J.Dickson, Printer to the Church of Scotland MDCCLXXXI (revised and approved, 1781)
The final version of 1781 contained the 45 paraphrases of 1745-51 (with amendments), with a further 22 paraphrases and 5 hymns. Of the 67 paraphrases, about half (35) were by Watts, Doddridge and Tate; the remainder by various (Scottish) translators.
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Scripture Union Hymn Books
(a) Golden Bells, or Hymns for our Children. Scripture Union and C.S.S.M, 1890
(b) Golden Bells, Revised edition, 1926
(c) Hymns of Faith, Scripture Union 1964
Contained 659 hymns, with 12 supplementary tunes. Perhaps unusually among English hymn-books of its period, all the hymns in the music edition were printed with up to 3 verses interlined with the music, any verses after the third being printed separately.
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(The Rejoice & Sing Enchiridion:edited by David Goodall; last amended 7/4/03)